Introduction This family contains by far the most species in the Iranian freshwater ichthyofauna and is divided into two files Abramis to Cyprinus here , and Garra to Vimba see both in Contents. The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates the Gobiidae may be the first. The family is found in North America, Eurasia and Africa. Other common names in English for species include barbels, breams, roaches, snow trouts, bitterlings, shiners, daces, chubs, barbs, “sharks”, among many others. There are about genera and over species Nelson, ; Eschmeyer and Fong, , about 8. In Iran, the family is represented by about? Collares-Pereira argues that the polyploid condition e. There are unbranched rays including rudimentary ones in the dorsal and anal fins followed by the more numerous branched rays the last two branched rays are counted as one. The first pectoral and the first pelvic fin ray are unbranched and not included in counts. Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening.

Early human migrations

Human evolution index page see books Upright walker: About six or seven million years ago there were no bipedal creatures resembling humanity. The earth was rich with diverse life forms, all subject to and shaped by natural forces and not the slightest signs of the intelligence and creativity that typifies humanity. Planet earth flourished without humanities’ interfering nature as it had for billions of years. God awareness had not yet emerged upon earth in any form that we can understand.

As stated in the Islamic Holy Quraan, there was a time when humans did not exist.

The emergence of the genus Homo sometime between and 2 Mya was an important chapter in human evolution, because most homi nins that appeared prior

Mane colour varies and darkens with age; research shows its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors such as average ambient temperature. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male—male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year.

The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal. In Serengeti National Park , female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. The hormone testosterone has been linked to mane growth; castrated lions often have little to no mane because the removal of the gonads inhibits testosterone production.

In the Chauvet Cave is a sketchy drawing of two maneless lions that appearing to be walking side-by-side. One lion is mostly obscured by the other; the obscuring lion is larger than the obscured one and is depicted with a scrotum. White lion White lions owe their colouring to a recessive allele The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism that is caused by a double recessive allele.

It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin. They were removed from the wild in the s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool. Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between and Intermittent bursts of activity continue until dawn, when hunting most often takes place.


Neanderthal extinction hypotheses and Archaic human admixture with modern humans The expansion of modern human population is thought to have begun 45, years ago, and may have taken 15, , years for Europe to be colonized. Because it took so long for Europe to be occupied, it appears that humans and Neanderthals may have been constantly competing for territory. The Neanderthals had larger brains, and were larger overall, with a more robust or heavily built frame, which suggests that they were physically stronger than modern Homo sapiens.

Having lived in Europe for , years, they would have been better adapted to the cold weather. The anatomically modern humans known as the Cro-Magnons , with widespread trade networks, superior technology and bodies likely better suited to running, would eventually completely displace the Neanderthals, whose last refuge was in the Iberian peninsula. After about 25, years ago the fossil record of the Neanderthals ends, indicating that they had become extinct.

 · The southern population of the Shortwing (Anamalai, High-Wavies and Peppara) diverged about 2 Mya from the ancestral population and this divergence is nearly at the time that other African montane forest birds like the Starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata and other montane highland species that diversified at ?id=/

As Anti-Media often notes, these stories are not entirely unreported by the media. Sessions will speak to the committee in wake of former FBI Director James Comey’s testimony Thursday that raised questions about the AG’s meetings with Russian officials before President Trump was sworn into office and while Sessions was still a senator. Comey’s recent testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, it is important that I have an opportunity to address these matters in the appropriate forum,” Sessions said in a Saturday letter to a House appropriations subcommittee.

Leaking US military files was ‘responsibility to public’ – Manning in first interview after release RT – t was her responsibility to reveal classified military documents to the public, Chelsea Manning told ABC in her first interview after leaving prison, adding that she was unaware that the leaks could threaten US national security. No one told me to do this.

Nobody directed me to do this. As of end of day yesterday, not one piece of actual, real evidence has come to light. Members of the Senate Judiciary Committee are debating subpoenaing Comey to compel his testimony. Chuck Grassley R-Iowa , the chairman of the committee, have discussed forcing Comey to appear before their panel. The participation rate was just 23 percent with roughly 2. A Taliban spokesman claimed the shooter was a part of the militant group and had killed four Americans and injured several more, but this has yet to be confirmed by government sources.

The Achin district in eastern Nangarhar province, where the attack took place, is also thought to be a stronghold of IS. Henrique Montbrun, who oversees the triage post in the municipality of Baruta, says the violence in the country has reached unprecedented levels. As more people take to the streets to demand their freedom back in a nation where tyranny took a firm hold shortly after the election of self-proclaimed socialist, Nicolaus Maduro, the country descended into complete government control, and the only people with money are now those in the government.

StudyDroid: FlashCards on the web, and in your hand!

Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added.

 · Hominid Dispersals and Asian Biogeography during the Lower and Early Middle Pleistocene, c. – Mya and their presence across southern Asia c. – mya can be regarded as simply a latitudinal dispersion into the type of habitats they already utilized in East Africa. show that in the Zoige Basin of eastern Tibet, climatic

Click on the ‘Open Image’ link beneath the description to display the image. It has extreme variation in pattern of coloration, but two color patterns are always present: The 60mm lens at 1: It is a non-climbing species in the treefrog family Hylidae. Cricket frogs have evolved from active tree climbing to living on land as active hoppers eluding predators. Natural selection has pretty much eliminated toe and finger adhesive pads for climbing in favor of hopping in this species, but poorly developed pads are still present.

Note the triangle between the eyes and the dark and light bars on the upper jaw. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1: That fall, hundreds of cricket frogs were hopping on the dried cracked mud. This individual shows the variation in coloration and warty-skin texture that helps camouflage this frog from its predators in a dried mud environment. Natural selection probably evolved a skin color and texture camouflage variation favorable to survival of these frogs by selecting a beneficial phenotype phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to environmental factors probably similar to selection of the process of annual change to white coat color in winter of some dark colored animals in response most likely to a photoperiod environmental factor.

Also, note in this photo the extensive webbing between the two toes of the hind leg which is a characteristic among all 5 toes on the hind legs of this species. Natural selection evolved this adaptation for efficient swimming under water.

Olduwan and Acheulian: Early Stone Age

During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1. The Quaternary includes only the last 1.

That is, land which had been raised.

 · Summarizing these data, there was a peak in carnivoran species richness in eastern Africa around – Mya and this richness has essentially been declining ever since, with a brief break around – ://

Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation.

With the exception of the five species of monotreme egg-laying mammals , all modern mammals give birth to live young. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders , belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents , bats and Soricomorpha shrews and allies. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates apes and monkeys , the Cetartiodactyla whales and even-toed ungulates , and the Carnivora cats , dogs , seals , and allies.

Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria platypus and echidnas and Theriiformes all other mammals. There are around species of mammal, depending on which authority is cited. In some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses:

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The period lasted roughly 3. Stone Age artifacts include tools used by humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Bone tools were used during this period as well, but are more rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use. The Stone Age is the first of the three-age system of archaeology , which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: The Stone Age The Iron Age Historical significance The Stone Age is nearly contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo, the only exception possibly being at the very beginning, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools.

 · Thus African ecosystems have undergone a series of aridification events, accompanied by spreading savannah habitats, since the Pliocene, with relatively wetter periods between Mya, Mya and ://

Life timeline and Nature timeline Modern Awash River , Ethiopia, descendant of the Palaeo-Awash, source of the sediments in which the oldest Stone Age tools have been found The Stone Age is contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo , the only exception possibly being the early Stone Age, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools. The closest relative among the other living primates , the genus Pan , represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest, where the primates evolved.

The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and also north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. Starting from about 4 million years ago mya a single biome established itself from South Africa through the rift, North Africa, and across Asia to modern China, which has been called “transcontinental ‘savannahstan"” recently.

All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity , or missing layer, which would have been from 2. The oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2. Excavators at the locality point out that: The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of stone tools to the presence thereof include Fragments of Australopithecus garhi , Australopithecus aethiopicus [9] and Homo, possibly Homo habilis , have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools.

The first most significant metal manufactured was bronze , an alloy of copper and tin , each of which was smelted separately. The transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age was a period during which modern people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture bronze, a time known as the Copper Age , or more technically the Chalcolithic , “copper-stone” age. The Chalcolithic by convention is the initial period of the Bronze Age.

The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age.

homo ergaster